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As previously noted, the authors used keywords peer support or mentorship and substance use disorders to generate articles on the use of peer support groups within substance use disorder treatment to generate the initial pool of articles. We further narrowed our initial results in the current article to include only studies that focused on peer support group treatments. However, initially, we found that empirical studies assessing peer support groups solely were very limited and that our literature search would be much improved if we included not only peer support groups independently but also studies that integrated peer support groups as a component of a larger spectrum of peer services offered. We also included traditional forms of peer support services such as 12-step in addition to including any recent advancements within the field.




We found 154 resources for you..



Of the participants randomized, 486 were assigned to the peer support condition and 480 were assigned to the video discussion condition, totaling a sample of 966 HIV injection drug users (IDUs). Purcell et al73 found that randomized participants in both conditions had retention rates of 87%, 83%, and 85% at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Significant reductions were noted in both groups for reductions from baseline in injection and sexual transmission risk behaviors, but there were no significant differences between conditions. Participants in both conditions reported no change in medical care and adherence.73


Beyond substance use, peer support groups offer unique advantages to engaging our historically difficult-to-engage populations. Services that included peer support groups were found to be equally comparable to the additive of extensive DRT, and both were significantly better than standard treatment at increasing adherence to post-discharge substance abuse and medical and mental health outpatient appointments for high recidivism individuals with substance use disorders.72 Moreover, consumers involved in the criminal justice system who had substance use disorders and were referred from drug courts, probation, or child protective services, who completed the program, were significantly more likely to have received recovery support groups.68 However, it should be noted that only a relatively small sample completed, thus diminishing the impact of these results.


You will also need to be familiar with content-based ESL instruction which is centered around the content students will acquire instead of direct language instruction. Students learn language through learning other academic content as opposed to the other way around. For content-based ESL instruction to be effective, the teacher must be extremely knowledgeable in the content area as well as prepared to assist students with language skills. Appropriate materials and resources must be selected for students with limited English proficiency.


Teachers can create rich language environments by meaningfully exposing students to interactive language experiences routinely. Teachers can read aloud daily using engaging, high-quality literature and maintain a classroom library to meet the needs and interests of a variety of learners. They can also post word walls and anchor charts on the wall for students to use as spelling and vocabulary resources. Teachers can also facilitate games that encourage language development and word play, such as games based on rhyming, the alphabet, or word categories. Teachers can also encourage class discussions and engage in conversation with students.


Competency 8 is all about the foundations of ESL education. It may surprise you to know that court cases come up on the ESL Supplemental exam, but they do. Here are a couple of important ones to know:


Community members can positively affect student learning in the ESL program by facilitating programs and events that make it clear these students are valued members of the community. Helpful resources can be available for ESL students and their families, such as appropriately leveled English language texts and technology in a library.


The Board cannot force a licensee to repair damages, complete a project, award monetary judgments, or even refund money; they may only discipline the licensee. You would need to hire an attorney (see resources for Legal Aid) to take civil action.


Should the respondent fail to respond in writing or does not pay the citation, the case will be turned over for collection and listed on the disciplinary action report. If the case is appealed, the Board may authorize a formal hearing. The Respondent is encouraged to obtain an attorney for representation. All hearings are overseen by an Administrative Law Judge. If you are found guilty of the violation, additional costs may be assessed to cover the hearing which includes expenses for the Judge, witnesses, investigation, court reporter, and any other legal fees incurred by the State. Failing to appear at a hearing may result in a judgment by "default" (guilty). After a formal hearing, if the penalties are not paid within the time allotted by the Board, it may be turned over to a collection agency or the local District Attorney's office for prosecution.


What is computation? What can be computed in principle with unbounded computational resources? What can be computed efficiently? What can we gain by formally modeling computation and how do different models relate to one another? How can models highlight different resources of computations, some obvious (such as time and memory) and others less so (such as communication and randomness). What is gained by considering natural and social phenomenon as computations and looking at central notions such as proofs, knowledge, learning, games, randomness, entropy and more through the computational lens?


However, despite the declining trend in China, the international spread of COVID-19 accelerated from late February. Large clusters of infection have been reported from an increasing number of countries18. The high transmission efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 and the abundance of international travel enabled rapid worldwide spread of COVID-19. On 11 March 2020, the WHO officially characterized the global COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic20. Since March, while COVID-19 in China has become effectively controlled, the case numbers in Europe, the USA and other regions have jumped sharply. According to the COVID-19 dashboard of the Center for System Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, as of 11 August 2020, 216 countries and regions from all six continents had reported more than 20 million cases of COVID-19, and more than 733,000 patients had died21. High mortality occurred especially when health-care resources were overwhelmed. The USA is the country with the largest number of cases so far.


The phylogenetic analysis for the whole genome shows that SARS-CoV-2 is clustered with SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) found in bats, placing it in the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus. Within this clade, SARS-CoV-2 is grouped in a distinct lineage together with four horseshoe bat coronavirus isolates (RaTG13, RmYN02, ZC45 and ZXC21) as well as novel coronaviruses recently identified in pangolins, which group parallel to SARS-CoV and other SARSr-CoVs (Fig. 2). Using sequences of five conserved replicative domains in pp1ab (3C-like protease (3CLpro), nidovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN), RdRp, zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and HEL1), the Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses estimated the pairwise patristic distances between SARS-CoV-2 and known coronaviruses, and assigned SARS-CoV-2 to the existing species SARSr-CoV17. Although phylogenetically related, SARS-CoV-2 is distinct from all other coronaviruses from bats and pangolins in this species.


Besides wildlife, researchers investigated the susceptibility of domesticated and laboratory animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study demonstrated experimentally that SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in cats and in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets, whereas dogs, pigs, chickens and ducks were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 (ref.43). The susceptibility of minks was documented by a report from the Netherlands on an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks. Although the symptoms in most infected minks were mild, some developed severe respiratory distress and died of interstitial pneumonia44. Both virological and serological testing found evidence for natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in two dogs from households with human cases of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, but the dogs appeared asymptomatic45. Another serological study detected SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in cat serum samples collected in Wuhan after the COVID-19 outbreak, providing evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cat populations in Wuhan, although the potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from cats to humans is currently uncertain46.


Animal models used for studying SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis include non-human primates (rhesus macaques, cynomolgus monkeys, marmosets and African green monkeys), mice (wild-type mice (with mouse-adapted virus) and human ACE2-transgenic or human ACE2-knock-in mice), ferrets and golden hamsters43,48,68,69,70,71,72,73,74. In non-human primate animal models, most species display clinical features similar to those of patients with COVID-19, including virus shedding, virus replication and host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection69,72,73. For example, in the rhesus macaque model, high viral loads were detected in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Acute viral interstitial pneumonia and humoral and cellular immune responses were observed48,75. Moreover, prolonged virus shedding peaked early in the course of infection in asymptomatic macaques69, and old monkeys showed severer interstitial pneumonia than young monkeys76, which is similar to what is seen in patients with COVID-19. In human ACE2-transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, typical interstitial pneumonia was present, and viral antigens were observed mainly in the bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. Some human ACE2-transgenic mice even died after infection70,71. In wide-type mice, a SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strain with the N501Y alteration in the RBD of the S protein was generated at passage 6. Interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses were found in both young and aged mice after infection with the mouse-adapted strain74. Golden hamsters also showed typical symptoms after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (ref.77). In other animal models, including cats and ferrets, SARS-CoV-2 could efficiently replicate in the upper respiratory tract but did not induce severe clinical symptoms43,78. As transmission by direct contact and air was observed in infected ferrets and hamsters, these animals could be used to model different transmission modes of COVID-19 (refs77,78,79). Animal models offer important information for understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2, and are important to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. 041b061a72


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